Now that we’ve covered the different data security options for iOS it’s time to focus on building a strategy. In many ways figuring out the technology is the easy part of the problem – the problems start when you need to apply that technology in a dynamic business environment, with users who have already made technology choices.
Most organizations we talk with – of all sizes and in all verticals – are under intense pressure to support iOS, to expand support of iOS, or to wrangle control over data security on iDevices already deployed and in active use. So developing your strategy depends on where you are starting from as much as on your overall goals. Here are the major factors to consider:
Device ownership is no longer a simple “ours or theirs”. Although some companies are able to maintain strict management of everything that connects to their networks and accesses data, this is becoming the exception more than the rule. Nearly all organizations are being forced to accept at least some level of employee-owned device access to enterprise assets whether that means remote access for a home PC, or access to corporate email on an iPad.
The first question you need to ask yourself is whether you can maintain strict ownership of all devices you support – or if you even want to. The gut instinct of most security professionals is to only allow organization-owned devices, but this is rarely a viable long-term strategy. On the other hand, allowing employee-owned devices doesn’t require you to give up on enterprise ownership completely.
Many of the data security options we have discussed work in a variety of scenarios. Here’s how to piece together your options:
- Employee owned devices: Your options are either partially managed or unmanaged. With unmanaged you have few viable security options and should focus on sandboxed messaging, encryption, and DRM apps. Even if you use one of these options, it will be more secure if you use even minimal partial management to enable data protection (by enforcing a passcode), enable remote wipe, and installing an enterprise digital certificate. The key is to sell this option to users, as we will detail below.
- Organization owned devices: These fall into two categories – general and limited use. Limited use devices are highly restricted and serve a single purpose; such as flight manuals for pilots, mobility apps for health care, or sales/sales engineering support. They are locked down with only necessary apps running. General use devices are issued to employees for a variety of job duties and support a wider range of applications. For data security, focus on the techniques that manage data moving on and off devices – typically managed email and networking, with good app support for what they need to get their jobs done.
If the employee owns the device you need to get their permission for any management of it. Define simple clear policies that include the following points:
- It is the employee’s device, but in exchange for access to work resources the employee allows the organization to install a work profile on the device.
- The work profile requires a strong passcode to protect the device and the data stored on it.
- In the event the device is lost or stolen, you must report it within [time period]. If there is reasonable belief the device is at risk [employer] will remotely wipe the device. This protects both personal and company data. If you use a sandboxed app that only wipes itself, specify that here.
- If you use a backhaul network, detail when it is used.
- Devices cannot be shared with others, including family.
- How the user is allowed to backup the device (or a recommended backup option).
Emphasize that these restrictions protect both personal and organizational data. The user must understand and accept that they are giving up some control of their device in order to gain access to work resources. They must sign the policy, because you are installing something on their personal device, and you need clear evidence they know what that means.
Financial services companies, defense contractors, healthcare organizations, and tech startups all have very different cultures. Some expect and accept much more tightly restricted access to employer resources, while others assume unrestricted access to consumer technology.
Don’t underestimate culture when defining your strategy – we have presented a variety of options on the data security spectrum, and some may not work with your particular culture. If more freedom is expected look to sandboxed apps. If management is expected, you can support a wider range of work activities, with your tighter device control.
Sensitivity of the data
Not every organization has the same data security needs. There are industries with information that simply shouldn’t be allowed onto a mobile device with any chance of loss. But most organizations have more flexibility.
The more sensitive the data, the more it needs to be isolated (or restricted from being on the device). This ties into both network security options (including DLP to prevent sensitive data from going to the device) and messaging/file access options (such as Exchange ActiveSync and sandboxed apps of all flavors).
Not all data is equal. Assess your risk and then tie it back into an appropriate technology strategy.
Business needs and workflow
If you need to exchange documents with partners, you will use different tools than if you only want to allow access to employee email. If you use cloud storage or care about document-level security, you may need a different tool.
Determine what the business wants to do with devices, then figure out which components you need to support that. And don’t forget to look at what they are already doing, which might surprise you.
If you have backhaul networks or existing encryption tools that may incline you in a particular direction. Document storage and sharing technologies (both internal and cloud) are also likely to influence your decision.
The trick is to follow the workflow. As we mentioned previously, you should map out existing and desired employee workflows. These will show you where they intersect with your infrastructure, which will further feed your strategy requirements.
Will the device access any data or applications with compliance ramifications? If so it may need to comply with specific compliance requirements which could include anything from encryption to email archiving. Or even restricting the devices completely.
Make a decision
Here is a suggested process to pull the factors together:
- Determine the ownership model to support – personal, employer, or both.
- Determine which devices to support (we focused on iOS, but your options may change with additional device types).
- Identify business processes and applications to support. This includes:
a. Email and communications.
b. Data repositories.
c. Enterprise applications.
d. External services, such as cloud storage and SaaS applications.
- Map out business workflows for the identified processes.
- Determine data security and compliance requirements for identified data and workflows. These should include how the data needs to be stored (e.g., encrypted), where it can be exchanged (e.g., email to external parties), and where it can be accessed.
- Map business workflows first to device (where the data may transfer onto the device) and then to the on-device workflow (which apps are used). Don’t map your security controls yet – for now it is more about figuring out how employees want to use the data on the device.
- Identify potential security controls/tools to enforce security requirements at each step of each identified workflow.
- Review and determine which tool categories to support.
- Identify and select specific tools.
You’ll notice that although we opened with a discussion of information-centric security, at this point we are more concerned with identifying the workflows involved. That’s because we need to bridge the business and security requirements – to protect the data we need to know how it’s used, and how employees want to use it. The best data security in the world is useless if it interferes so much with business process that it kills off what the business wants to do, or users decide they need to work around it.
iPhones, iPads, and cloud computing are the 1-2-3 punch knocking down our traditional expectations for securing enterprise data and managing employee devices and services. Simultaneously, this is creating new opportunities for information-centric security approaches we have long ignored as we fixated on our fantasy of the enterprise perimeter. I am firmly convinced that these new models create more security opportunities than security risks.
But it is a challenge every time we face intense pressure to support new things in a short time frame.
The good news is that iOS is a relatively secure platform that is completely suitable for most organizations. Of course it isn’t perfect, and employee ownership and expectations further complicate the situation. For some organizations, the risks are still simply too great.
For the rest of us who want to embrace iOS, we have tools available to do so securely, with a range of deployment scenarios. We can start with something as simple as filtering out sensitive emails before they hit the iPhone, to something as complex as multi-organization secure document workflows. Hopefully this series has given you some good starting tips, and as new technologies appear we will try to keep it up to date.